SAFEN logo mobil
SAFEN logo


SAFEN – short for "Safe Energy Carriers" – is a Joint Industry Project (JIP) which was initiated and is lead by Safetec.

A strong and diverse group of industry partners share experiences and together address knowledge gaps in understanding failure mechanisms, hazards, and accident situations in renewable technologies involving hydrogen, ammonia, and CCS (carbon capture and storage).

The SAFEN JIP was formally kicked-off in March 2022. Phase 1 of the project was completed in September 2023, followed by start-up of Phase 2. Phase 2 is planned to be completed in 2025.

Fasene i SAFEN-prosjektet

The purpose of SAFEN

The overarching SAFEN JIP objective is to establish the knowledge required to develop risk-based methodologies enabling cost-efficient safety design across the renewable sector involving hydrogen, ammonia, and CO2.

The knowledge comprises quantitative knowledge (e.g. statistics on loss of containment events) and qualitative knowledge (e.g. experience from events or expert knowledge on failure mechanisms). This is the basis for new and improved models for loss of containment frequencies for different types of equipment (process equipment, storage tanks, etc.) and fluids, and for ignition probability models (hydrogen and ammonia). SAFEN will provide recommendations for application of models and SAFEN results to risk management and safe design and operation of installations, e.g. by guidelines on design and operation of installations.


SAFEN was initiated and is led by Safetec. The project is executed in close collaboration with the consultancies DNV, Vysus Group, Gexcon, and Proactima.

Industrial partners include Aker Horizons, Equinor, Gassco, Gen2 Energy, GreenH, HYDS, Lloyd’s Register, Origin Energy, Sjøfartsdirektoratet (the Norwegian Maritime Authority), Storegga, Swagelok, Vår Energi, and Yara, which contribute with financial support, data input, system description, and industry experience to the project.

In addition, SAFEN has the associated members DSB, Energy Institute, World Class Maintenance, and RIVM which contribute with knowledge input and insight.

SAFEN news

Results and reports

From Phase 1, the following reports are available for SAFEN participants on the SAFEN internal pages:

  • ST-17462-3 SAFEN Database outline: This report contains definitions of central terms, specification of data field parameters, and suggestions for potential database IT solutions for a Loss of Containment events database.
  • ST-17462-5 Mapping of failure scenarios in renewable energy technologies: This report provides a summary of the knowledge base on failure mechanisms and failure causes based on available statistical data and description of incidents from a variety of sources. Furthermore, the report describes the dominant failure scenarios believed to be relevant for the H2, NH3 and CO2 industry.
  • ST-17462-6 Human reliability analysis of loading operations: This report describes the methodology and results from and Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) on loading operations (shore to ship: crude oil loading from caverns on an onshore storage facility to a tanker through loading arms).
  • ST-17462-1 Ignition source literature study: This report provides a review of ignition mechanisms and models for hydrogen and ammonia.
  • ST-17462-2 Research campaign for ignition mechanisms: This report proposes an experimental campaign on hydrogen ignition to improve the knowledge base on ignition mechanisms.
  • ST-17462-4 SAFEN Risk modelling and input to risk management: This report describes the different models developed in SAFEN Phase 1:
    • Loss of Containment (LoC) models (1st version) for hydrogen, ammonia and CCS facilities including its fundamental principles and basis for: process equipment, loading operations, and method / LoC model for storage tanks.
    • Ignition probability models (1st version) for hydrogen including its fundamental principles and basis.
    • Risk analyses and risk management guidance.
    • Recommendations for design and operation.

Want to be a Partner? Contact us about SAFEN:

Thomas welte
Thomas Welte

Principal Safety Adviser

Ingar Fossan
Ingar Fossan

Innovation and Development Manager